Detective Inspector Frederick George Abberline

Posted: January 3, 2009 in Inspector Frederick Abberline
Now we’ll look deeper into the life and career of Detective Inspector Abberline. Here are a few articles from The Police Courts, which appeared in "News of the World" and "Weekly Dispatch" of 1886, 2 years before the Ripper case.
A SERIES OF BURGLARIES. – DENNIS BRYAN, 35, alias Arthur Roberts, alias August, was brought up in custody of Detective-Inspector Abberline, of the Criminal Investigation Department, under a writ of habeas corpus, from Birmingham Gaol, charged with having committed a number of burglaries and violent assaults on the police. He was first charged with burglariously breaking and entering the dwelling-house of John Galvin, 47, Exmouth-Street, Mile-end, with intent to steal therein, on the 30th April last. The next charge was that of violently assaulting Police-constable George Goad, 443 H, with intent to resist his lawful apprehension, at the same time and place. The next charge was of burglariously entering the dwelling-house of Jane Elizabeth Woodland, 29, Hunt-street, Mile-end, on the 10th June, 1886, and stealing therefrom seven shawls, two quilts, four tablecloths, six dress pieces, and two vests, value £4; also with violently assaulting Police-constable Frederick Weir, 180 H, at the same time and place. He was next charged with breaking and entering the dwelling-house of Mr. Barnard Goldsmith, 125, High-street, Whitechapel, and stealing therefrom eight pairs of trousers, one coat, and three pieces of cloth; also with feloniously wounding Police-constable Thomas Ockwell, 43 H, with intent to resist his lawful apprehension, at old Castle-street, Whitechapel. – Mr. Angus Lewis prosecuted on behalf of the Public Prosecutor, and was about to open the case when the accused asked that all witnesses should be ordered out of Court, as he believed himself to be the victim of a gigantic conspiracy. – The witnesses having been ordered out of Court, Mr. Lewis said that each of the burglaries committed by the accused was accompanied by severe acts of violence on the police. The accused then got away to Birmingham, where he was convicted of another offence. – Goad, 443 H, said on the night of April 29 he was on duty in Exmouth-street. About 10 minutes past twelve he saw the prisoner with two other men about 40 yards from Mr. Galvin’s house. He watched them, and saw the accused enter No. 47, apparently with a key. The other two men then walked away. Witness walked towards the door. When within five or six yards from the door he heard a whistle from one of the other two men. Bryan then came out of the house and ran away. Witness followed and caught him. As soon as he put his hand on Bryan he said, "I live there." Witness said, "You will have to come back to the house with me and see what has happened." – Bryan then struck him in the face with his fist, and attempted to get away by struggling. The other two men came up. Witness drew his truncheon and struck at the prisoner, but missed him. Bryan then butted him in the chest with his head, and he fell to the ground. While on the ground he received several kicks on various parts of the body and head from the prisoner and the other men. The accused then wrenched his truncheon from him and struck him a severe blow on the head with it, which rendered him insensible. The next thing he remembered was seeing the prisoner enter the house. Witness was assisted to the police-station. In consequence of the injuries he received he was under the care of the divisional surgeon for three months. He was sure the prisoner was the man who assaulted him. His truncheon was never found. He next saw the prisoner on the 21st July at Winson-green Prison, Birmingham, where he picked him out from among 12 other men. – By the prisoner: He could see what the prisoner was doing, as the door of the house was right under a lamp. He was then dressed in a black diagonal coat and vest. – The prisoner: It was a very dull night; I remember it well, for I went home to fetch my overcoat. – Mrs. Elizabeth Boustred, the wife of a beershop keeper at the corner of Exmouth-street, said on the night in question she heard a thud, and on going outside she saw the constable lying on his face, in the road, insensible. She then saw three men running away. Witness turned the constable over, pulled out his whistle, and blew it for assistance. Some other officers then came. – Dr. Edmund King Houchin, divisional surgeon of police, proved the nature of the constable’s injuries, and said that he was under his care for three months. – Mr. Saunders said that the constable had acted with great zeal, and his conduct was to be commended. He had much pleasure in marking the sheet accordingly. – Detective-Inspector George Abberline said that in consequence of the information he received he went to Birmingham, with a Home Office order, in company with three constables, of whom Goad was one. He arranged with the prison authorities to have the prisoner placed with nine other men, and all of them were in plain clothes. Goad picked out the prisoner, but not so readily as the other two officers. Witness asked Goad whether he saw any one he knew, and he pointed out the accused. When he read the charge over to the prisoner that morning he made no reply. – By the prisoner: His photograph was circulated, and that was how his whereabouts came to be known. Witness was acting on secret information to a certain extent. – Constable F. Robins, 119 H, said that he was at Southampton when the prisoner was sentenced to ten years’ penal servitude for housebreaking and having deadly  and housebreaking weapons in his possession, in the name of Reuben August. – This completed the first case, when the prisoner made a long statement, to the effect that because he had been previously convicted these charges were fixed on him. He heard that that was going to be done, and that was why he left London and went to Birmingham. – Mr. Saunders then remanded the prisoner… The next day the first witness called was Mrs. Woodland, of 29, Hunt-street who stated she kept a pawnbrokers shop. On the night of the 9th June last she closed up the premises herself, and everything was secured in the usual way. About 3 o’clock on the following morning she was called up by the police. On going outside her shop she found that one of the shutters had been broken down and the window cut out. A piece of glass had been clean cut out, and then the remaining portions broken off, and placed inside the shop window. From the window she missed various articles, which she afterwards saw at the Commercial-street Police-station. – Police constable Frederick Weir, 180 H, stated that he was on duty in Pelham-street, Mile-end New Town, early on the 10th June with Constable 55 H. He saw the prisoner with other men. Bryan was wheeling a costermonger’s barrow, while the other two men were walking on either side of it. Witness stopped Bryan and asked him what he had in the barrow. He replied, "I have had a few words with my landlord, and am shifting my things, as I owe him a few weeks’ rent." Witness said, "Let us see what you have in the sack," at the same time opening the sack and seeing that it contained some pawnbroker’s bundles. Witness then said, "This is wrong." As soon as he said that the other two men turned round and ran away. The other constable ran after them. Witness told the prisoner he would have to stop, and he said, "I will be quiet." After the other constable had got out of sight, the accused said, "Now I mean to have a go for it." He then tripped witness up and threw him over the handles of the barrow. Witness had both hands in Bryan’s collar, and pulled him on to him. When in that position Bryan put his mouth over him and bit him through the nose, and also through the left hand. The teeth marks were still visible. Witness was almost stunned. The prisoner then got up, gave him several kicks about the body, and ran away. Witness was under the hands of the doctor for 14 days. – Constable Joseph Mizen, 55 H, gave evidence corroborating that of the last witness. – Detective-inspector Frederick Abberline stated he caused the prisoner to be placed with nine other men in the prison at Birmingham on the 21st July. They were all dressed in plain clothes. Constable Weir immediately picked him out. On the previous day witness put Bryan with nine other men, when the last witness at once identified him. – This having completed the second charge, Mr. Lushington formally cautioned the prisoner, who said, "It is evident to me that this is a conspiracy, for I am conscious I am not the man. The three constables who have come against me agree I wore a black diagonal coat. I never wore such a thing. Though well known about the locality where the cases took place, there is not a single man who can come forward and said they saw me with such a coat; and the first constable pretended he took such minute notice of me as to describe the collar I wore. From my knowledge of the street, which has been familiar to me from my childhood, and where I have passed along day and night as a boy, I know for a fact that on a dull night no one engaged in securing a man could take such notice as to describe everything he wore. Furthermore, if I could produce a single man who had a knowledge of the circumstances, he would say I was the victim of a conspiracy founded on the previous knowledge of my career. That is all." – Evidence having been given of an assault upon Police-constable Thomas Ockwell on the 10th June last, the prisoner, in answer to the charge, said," I am well aware that whatever I say is the truth, and if it should be proved against me I wish to deny it. One circumstance I wish to notice. Although three persons are supposed to be concerned in the first two cases, I seem to be the only one they know and can recognise. Again, if I committed the offences, why was I not taken before? I am well known in the locality, yet no one attempts to arrest me until the last offence is committed in Castle-street. Then a rumour is circulated that when I went to show myself at the Commercial-street Police-station on the Saturday they meant to detain me. Fear of the result made me go to Birmingham. There I got into trouble; got remanded for a week, and then Superintendent Black told me if I happened to get out of that charge I would be taken for burglary and assault in London. I remarked to Superintendent Black that I knew it, and it was the fear of the result that took me to Birmingham. That is all I wish to say." Mr. Lushington then committed the prisoner for trial on the various charges at the next sessions of the Central Criminal Court.
Source: News Of The World, Sunday August 22, 1886, page 7
The next article shows that Detective Inspector Abberline was not new to, and quite wizened to, dealing with those involved in the occult.
SINGULAR CHARGE OF FORTUNE TELLING. – Emily Rachel Howie, described as a needle-woman, of Stretfield-street, St. George’s, and Antonia Speal, married, of Providence-street, St. George’s were charged with fortune telling. – Ellen Moore, a cook, living at Leman-street, Whitechapel, said on Saturday she went to Howie’s house in Stretfield-street, and was accompanied by a friend named Wood. Howie came to the door, and asked what they wanted, as she was afraid of seeing strangers. She then referred to a book (produced), and asked witness her age. On telling her, she shuffled a pack of cards, placed them on her lap, and told witness to cut them into three portions. Witness did so. The prisoner then spread the cards out, and told her she had seen plenty of trouble, but would not see any more. She also said witness had a dark woman who was an enemy, and she would have money from abroad. The accused also told witness she should marry, and by that means have a rise in life, and overlook all her enemies. Witness then asked her the charge, and she replied sixpence. She paid her that amount. Her friend then had her fortune told, and the prisoner told her she had a young man abroad, and that he would be home sooner than she expected. The prisoner also told her that by the time she got home she would find a letter awaiting her, which contained money. – By the prisoner: Witness was sent to her by Detective sergeant White. – The prisoner: I did not extort money. I am reduced in circumstances. I acknowledge I have cut cards for ladies. The witness importuned me. – Alice Wood, Wellclose-square, St. George’s-in-the-East, corroborated the evidence of the last witness, and added, when they first saw the prisoner Howie, she said, "I must be careful about receiving strangers." She added that the dear young man was very fond of her, and was coming off deep waters with plenty of gold. She had seen women visiting prisoner’s house. – Detective-sergeant Stephen White said he arrested the prisoner at her house. The street-door was open, and looking into the room he saw the prisoner seated at a table with the book and a pack of cards. A young lady was seated in the room. As soon as she saw witness she tried to pass the cards over her shoulder, but they went into Inspector Abberline’s hands. The young lady said she was having her fortune told. – Alice Wood, recalled, said when she went to Speal’s house, the prisoner asked who sent her there. She replied, "a young woman." Witness sat opposite Speal, who was seated at a round table. Having shuffled the cards witness parted them. She told witness there was a man "betwixt colours," who was very fond of her, also that a fair young man loved her, that the dark one was coming off deep waters, and would offer her marriage. Speal also said a dark woman would make a great deal of mischief between them, and if they got married, they would soon be parted. Also that witness had plenty of enemies, and a fire would happen in her home. Witness paid her 6d. – Ellen Moore also proved visiting the house and having her fortune told. Speal told her there would be a death in her family. She would then be left a deal of money, but would have some trouble in getting it, after that "everything would be good before her." Witness paid her her 6d. – Sergeant White said when he arrested Speal she tried to get away. She said, " I have done nothing wrong." Sergeant Newman found a lot of cards in the house. – Mr. Lushington sentenced each of the prisoners to three months’ hard labour.
Source: News Of The World, Sunday January 31, 1886, page 5
At WORSHIP-STREET, on Wednesday, two respectable looking men, giving the names of Davis and Williams, and an address at Eagling-road, Bow, were brought up on remand on the charge of stealing four guns, value £60, from a shop at Newcastle-street, Whitechapel. Inspector Abberline conducted the case, and produced evidence showing that the guns were missed on the 19th of December and the 7th of January, on both of which occasions the prisoners were in the shop for the purpose of making purchases, and were left alone for some few minutes. The prisoners being suspected of stealing the guns, Police-detective East followed them to shooting matches in various places near London, and found them using one of the guns. They were arrested, and inquiries made resulted in the discovery that the prisoners at a shooting match near Bristol at Christmas last sold the three other missing guns to a dealer living at Bristol. Detective-inspector Short, of the Bristol Police, now proved that the two prisoners were brothers, and their proper names were John and James Bacon, and they belonged to Bedminster. The man now calling himself Williams had been twice convicted, at Bristol in 1865 and at Gloucester in 1872, when he received two years’ imprisonment. Davis had been several times convicted, once in 1868 at Bristol, when he was sentenced to seven years’ penal servitude for housebreaking, and also in 1881, when he was sentenced to five years’ penal servitude. Mr. Hannay fully committed them for trial.
Source: Weekly Dispatch, Sunday April 11, 1886, page 10
At the THAMES court, on Thursday, John Gibbs, twenty-one, a licence holder, and Alfred Humphries, nineteen, were charged on remand with stealing a gold watch and chain from Thomas Chaffer, an insurance agent; secondly, with stealing a portion of a gold chain from Lewis Lesser, a collector for Jewish charities; and also with stealing a gold watch and chain and an umbrella from Dr. Septimus Swyer. The evidence of Mr. Chaffer was to the effect that on Saturday evening, the 27th ult., he was walking along the Whitechapel-road, in the direction of Stepney Green. On getting to East Mount-street he was set upon by five men, two of whom were the prisoners. Humphries put his hand under his coat and tore away his watch and chain. At the same time he received a punch in the back, and Gibbs kicked him in the stomach and threw him down. He got up and attempted to follow Humphries, but was then tripped up by Gibbs. He again got up and called out, "Police!" and "Stop thief!" After that he went to the police-station at Arbour-square, and gave a description of the prisoners. Last Thursday he was called to the police-station, and picked the prisoners out from twelve other men. Mr. Lesser was next called, and proved that on Monday, the 8th inst., he was walking along Leslie-street, and when within two yards of his own door three men came in front of him. One of them pulled open his coat, and Gibbs took him by the shoulders and pulled him onto his back. Gibbs and another man then held him down, and rifled his pockets. He screamed for help, and received a punch in the mouth. He still cried for help, when a hand was placed over his mouth to stifle his cries. Witness held his hand over his watch, and a portion of the gold chain was wrenched off. Some persons then came up, and he was allowed to raise himself. Two of the men at once made their escape, and he followed Gibbs for some distance, but at last he managed to get away. Dr. Swyer said shortly before ten o’clock on the night of Sunday, the 28th ult., he was passing through Osborne-street, Whitechapel, in company with his boy. He was suddenly secured from behind by several persons, and his arms pinioned. He then received a crushing blow on the hat, which partially stunned him. He also received a blow on the left temple. His umbrella was taken from him. The prisoner Gibbs then came in front of him, unbuttoned his overcoat, and snatched his watch and chain. As soon as witness could release himself he went after Gibbs, but several of his companions tried to trip him up when he did so. There were as many as twenty-five or thirty persons in the gang. Mr. Abberline stated that there were other cases against the prisoners. Mr. Lushington committed the prisoners for trial.
Source: Weekly Dispatch, Sunday March 21, 1886, page 10
LONDON, Jan. 26. – The excitement over the explosions on Saturday afternoon continues with unabated force. The approaches to all the public buildings are being rigidly guarded. Nobody is allowed to enter without submitting to the closest scrutiny. The Tower and the Parliament Houses are surrounded with sentries and extra policemen. Immense crowds of people continue to be attracted to the vicinity of the Tower and Westminster. The two policemen, Cox and Cole, who were injured by the explosion in Westminster Hall are making favorable progress, and hope is entertained of their recovery.
Col. Majendie is engaged today in an official inspection of the scenes of the explosion at the Parliament Buildings, and is having limelight photographs taken of all the damaged portions of the interiors. Afterward the debris will be carefully removed and examined for the purpose of ascertaining scientifically the exact nature of the compound used in making the explosives. Excellent photographs were secured today of the interior of the Banquet Hall of the White Tower, in which the explosion at London Tower occured. The wreckage remains still in its original position, and the hall presents a picture of marvelous confusion. Col. Majendie will make an official examination of the place tomorrow. Meanwhile the privilege of free admission to the Tower and grounds has been suspended. In the Council Chamber of the Tower whole cases made of plate glass a quarter of an inch thick and containing armor were shattered by the force of the explosion. The wall against which the dynamite was placed is 16 feet thick, notwithstanding which the plastering on the opposite side of the wall for a radius of several feet was shaken to the floor, leaving the stonework bare. Several good photographs of this effect of the explosion have been secured. The electric lighting office of the House of Commons and the cables were destroyed, and the apparatus was rendered unfit for use by the explosions. Closer inspection shows the ruin to have been more appalling than at first supposed. The Post Office in the lobby was destroyed, and several huge blocks of stone, 14 inches in thickness and weighing half a ton, were upheaved. The ventilation chamber of the House of Commons is a yawning chasm, into which, at the moment of the explosion, poured many tons of brickwork, masonry, and splintered timber.
The experts who have been examining the locality of the disaster in the Parliament Building have reached the conclusion, after tracing the progress of the debris, that the explosion occured in the passage leading from the aye division lobby to the seats in the southwest chamber, usually occupied by the public Secretaries. The parcel containing the dynamite was placed a few feet beyond the barrier at the entrance to the House of Commons, the location being precisely indicated by a hole plowed through masonry a foot thick. A fissure was also made in the brickwork of an arch nearby. Surprise is expressed that the explosive was not placed directly under the barrier, in which case the damage would have been far greater. All the indications show that the explosive possessed the downward tendency peculiar to dynamite. Odors indicating sulphuric or nitric acid, and totally unlike the smell of gunpowder, were noticed after the explosion. It is now known that the infernal machines used to cause the disasters were ignited by sulphuric acid, which worked through cottonwool and ate away the cap beneath. The process occupied twenty minutes’ time, and this allowed the conspirator to escape before the explosion took place. Not the slightest trace of any mechanical apparatus or of a fuse has been found in the Tower or in the Parliament Buildings. This fact strengthens the opinion that no infernal machine was used to effect the explosions, but that the agency employed was dynamite in some simple form, packages containing five or six pounds of the explosive being deposited in the Tower and the Parliament Buildings.
The Queen has summoned the Controller of the Royal Household to Osborne House, the Queen’s residence on the Isle of Wight, to describe to her the nature and extent of the disasters. The official estimates made by the Government Inspectors place the amount of the pecuniary damage wrought by the explosions in Westminster Hall, the House of Commons, and the Tower, at $70,000.
The letter received by the police officials yesterday is now believed to be a very important document. In addition to other valuable information it states that St. Paul’s Cathedral and the office of the Daily Telegraph are among the buildings which the dynamiters threaten to blow up. Special precautions have been taken for the protection of the Stock Exchange and New Law Courts against dynamite attacks. All the royal apartments at Windsor Castle have been ordered closed to all visitors. This step has been taken in consequence of the extraordinary precautionary measures generally advised by the Ministry. The Queen has conducted herself so stoically throughout all previous dynamite panics that her present action attracts more attention.
It is reported that the police have discovered an important clue which they are following with the utmost diligence. They already have eight men under surveillance. A man arrested today on suspicion of being concerned in the outrages is still in custody, but the police refuse all information as to his name or their reasons for believing him guilty. A notice has been issued by the police authorities asking all who were visitors to the Parliament Building Saturday to give the police any possible information regarding the man and woman who were seen in the building that afternoon under suspicious circumstances. The woman is believed to have carried the dynamite under her cloak. The notice gives the following personal description of them: The man – Age, 35 to 40 years; height, 5 feet 10 inches; sallow complexion; chin shaved, fair whiskers and mustache; rather pug nose; wore a long brown overcoat, dark trousers, and billycock hat. The woman – Age, 40 years; short stature; sallow complexion; wore a dark dress and sealskin or imitation sealskin jacket.
Constable Cole, who was terribly injured in his attempt to prevent the explosion in Westminster Hall, made an important statement this afternoon. He said that when he picked up the bundle on the steps leading to the crypt he noticed that it was very heavy in proportion to its size. He determined to carry it outside of the building, because he saw smoke issuing from the bundle and believed it to be some sort of an infernal machine. Just as he reached the top of the stairway he saw an oily substance oozing from the bottom of the bundle. This stuff burned his hands and compelled him to drop the bundle. He has no recollection of anything that happened after that. This statement by Constable Cole confirms a theory entertained by the police that a chemical fuse was arranged in such a way that it would burn through a cotton plug inserted between the fuse and the fulminating substance intended to explode the dynamite.
A movement is on foot to raise a fund by popular subscriptions to reward Constable Cole for his plucky effort to avert the disaster.
Fifteen detectives arrived at Dover from London at midnight last night. Seven of them have since departed for various railway stations to keep a lookout for suspicious persons that may have taken part in the London outrages. Two of them have been in close consultation with French detectives. An official notice has been posted at the entrance to the Law Courts empowering the police to search any bag or parcel before the bearer thereof shall be allowed to enter. Many persons carrying parcels on the streets today have been stopped by the police and the parcels examined before they were permitted to pass on. Special detectives have been detailed to watch all outgoing steamers, especially steamers for America. All vessels are strictly searched.
It is reported in the city this evening that one of the great English railway corporations has decided to discharge from its employ immediately all persons of Irish birth.
A rumor was current last evening and this morning that Cunningham, who was arrested at the Tower, would have a hearing today at the Thames Police Court, in Arbour-street. The report caused the court and the streets in the vicinity to be crowded with excited citizens and extra police had to be placed on duty to keep order. The feeling against Cunningham is very bitter, and if the crowd once got their hands on him there is no doubt he would be lynched. Soon after noon it was ascertained that Cunningham would be arraigned at the Bow-Street Police Court. The people in the vicinity of the Thames Police Court then gathered in and about that court.
Cunningham was conveyed to the Bow-Street Police Court today by a strong guard of police. He was there charged, on suspicion, of complicity in the explosion at the Tower of London. He smilingly surveyed the court and the crowd which had congregated within to get a glimpse of the alleged dynamiter. Inspector Abberline deposed that he examined the prisoner at the Tower; that he (the prisoner) was confused and gave contradictory answers to the questions propounded. The prisoner, the Inspector said, first gave a wrong address as to his place of abode. Then he stated that he lived in Scarboro-street, Whitechapel; that he worked in the docks at Liverpool until the beginning of the year, when he came to London to try and better himself. He formerly resided in America, and made voyages on the steamship Adriatic, of the White Star Line. The Inspector further deposed that the prisoner was known at his lodgings in Whitechapel as Dalton. A box and a bag belonging to the prisoner has been seized by the police, but their contents had not as yet been made known. Keys were found in the possession of Cunningham which exactly fitted in the door of the residence in Whitechapel claimed by him as his place of residence; also keys which fitted in the locks of the suspicious bag and box. Inquiry by telegraph had revealed the fact that Cunningham was unknown at his alleged lodgings at Liverpool. The proprietor of the house there said that he could remember no such man as the one described as Cunningham. The prisoner’s hands are horny, indicating that he is used to hard work. He admitted that the constable was correct in his deposition, but refused to say anything further. He was remanded until Tuesday, Feb. 3.
The examination tended to convince the police that in arresting Cunningham they had secured a prisoner who at least had guilty knowledge of Saturday’s crimes. It was proved that he was a native of Cork, that he had lived at least five years in the United States, and that he had arrived in England during last Autumn and came directly from New York. His pretense that he was an Englishman was well carried out for a few hours after his arrest, his appearance favoring it and his drawling stammer being peculiarly cockneyish. But in his excitement under the close cross-examination of the court he forgot himself for a moment and spoke as rapidly and distinctly as an elocutionist and clearly demonstrated that his cockneyism was a clever piece of dissimulation. During the proceedings Cunningham paid the closest attention to everything going on within the court room. He frequently was made very nervous by the statements of the police, and at such times would lean forward and bite his under lip, at the same time glancing furtively about the room. In person Cunnningham is short, and of dark, sallow complexion. His face is clean-shaven. His cheek bones are high, and his upper lip is conspicuously overhanging. He is apparently about 28 years of age. When speaking freely and naturally his accent is notably American or Irish-American. Upon the street under ordinary circumstances he might at a hasty glance be taken for a German-American. At the time of his arrest he wore a dark overcoat and a felt hat. It is reported that he has made an important revelation, in consequence of which all trains leaving London for seaport towns are accompanied by detectives.
Source: The New York Times, January 27, 1885
The Old Bailey Records are now online and you can find several cases in which Abberline appeared as a witness here:
Or click here and enter "Abberline" or "Aberline" in the search bar


Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: Logo

You are commenting using your account. Log Out /  Change )

Google photo

You are commenting using your Google account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s